The illusions and misconceptions of invincibility in the field of medicine

Since the words were synonymous, proving that the meaning was understood, there was no reason for a healthy person to reproduce the word incorrectly. S adapted himself to the meaning of the stimulus word in the same way as normal uneducated subjects, with no superficial word associations.

The group produced associations. She talked of star dwellers and the M Martian canal system, and the beings that live on Mars. His chief symptoms, instability of character and forgetfulness, play a particularly prominent role in hysteria.


Five Ss were also treated for association during fatigue and one was tested for association during a state of drowsiness.

The research design also attempted to control the differences in education. Subjectivity and feelings were less prominent in the uneducated men than in the uneducated women. The galvanometer curves in the dementia praecox patients included some that were very labile and some that were similar to curves in normal subjects.

The results are similar to those of the first study. Results of the experiment show normal variation under the influence of attention, education, and individual characteristics of the subject. All new ideas and combinations of ideas are premeditated by the unconscious.

As the abstracts were written they were immediately added to one of the Clearinghouse computer files and were searchable by computer since late The association that is incorrectly reproduced has, on the average, twice as many complex signs as the correctly reproduced one, including such characteristics as reaction by two or more words if this is not typical for the subject; repetition or misunderstanding of the the stimulus word; slips of the tongue; and use of a foreign word.

The interrelations of venous reactions in a study of associations and attention in four different groups of 38 normal subjects are presented. Using a schema developed by Aschaffenburg, the results were divided into four main categories, internal associations, external associations, sound reactions, and a miscellaneous classification including indirect associations meaningless reactions, failures, and repetition of the stimulus word.

The association method is described and some of its practical applications are discussed. In a study of word associations and attention in 38 normal subjects, a group of nine educated men comprised one homogeneous study group of known normal subjects.

Long reaction times were usually caused by intense emotions and may have been used to uncover conscious and unconscious complexes, which could be important in hysteria. The association experiment was marked by an enormous number of failures, abnormally long reaction times, and other complex constellations showing that she was dominated by a number of complexes, particularly an illness complex, a sexual complex, and a school complex.

Forty series of curves were recorded in eight normal subjects, and 30 in 11 cases of dementia praecox of different types. Early stimuli usually cause stronger reactions than later ones because of the elements of tension and expectation.

Each completed associations under normal conditions and 10 associations under external distraction. The uneducated women as a whole showed the least ability to divide their attention.

It is concluded that: Many more than stimulus words should be used. The work of genius consists of building these traces into new and meaningful structures.

The quality of the association also exerted influence. The characters manifest during her somnambulistic attacks, who had been well differentiated, became mixed.

In this case, the mystical system that S devised can be regarded as an example of heightened unconscious performance that transcended her normal intelligence. Etiologically, two elements should be considered: Various aspects of somnambulism are discussed in studying the case of a l 5-year-old girl.

The term "chronic mania" seems too strong, for these are cases of a hypomanic state that cannot be regarded as psychotic. A review of several cases in the literature indicates that the second state is usually separated from the first by an amnesic split, with a break in the continuity of consciousness and a change in character.

A galvanometer was introduced into the circuit of a 2 volt current passed through the human body. There was an intense adaptation to the meaning of the stimulus word so that a great number of the associations were explanations, and the reaction times were considerably longer than in normal subjects.

Return to the Table of Contents The psychopathological significance of the association experiment. Psychiatric Studies List of Contents On the psychology and pathology of so-called occult phenomena: A large number of malingerers are hysterical and therefore provide favorable soil for autosuggestion and disturbances of consciousness.

Emotionally charged reactions are revealed by such disturbances as prolonged reaction times, failure to respond, responding with additions, repetition of the stimulus words, and perseveration.

Thirty seven critical stimulus words distributed among 63 irrelevant ones produced such suspicious reactions, reaction times, and memory lapses in the reproduction phase that the investigator accused the young man, and S finally confessed.

Although the material gathered from reactions in this group was quantitatively uneven and the results, which are presented individually, differed from subject to subject, certain patterns were observed.

In these experiments physic,; stimuli caused greater galvanic fluctuations than psychological ones, which may have been due to the fact that the physical stimuli occurred earlier in the experiment.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Editor's Preface The mission of the National Clearinghouse for Mental Health information is to provide effective dissemination of mental health information by all appropriate means and to all appropriate people.

The illusions and misconceptions of invincibility in the field of medicine
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